1875 - 1908

 

1875

:

Empire declares bankruptcy. Balkan uprisings.

1876

:

The Empire continues to crumble, revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina, war against Serbia and Montenegro.

1876-1877

:

The short-lived First Constitutional Period.

1877

:

War against Russia, known in Turkey as "the campaign of 93", after which the Russian army dictates the Treaty of Ayastefanos. Sultan Aldulhamid II uses the crisis to dissolve parliament and suspend the constitution.

1878

:

Treaty of Berlin - to which Ottomans are not invited - establishes partial Bulgarian autonomy.

1881

:

The French invade Tunisia.

1881

:

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is born in Selonika.

1882

:

The British invade and take over Egypt.

1895

:

Last Ottoman province in the Balkans, Macedonia, succumbs to civil war.

1908

:

Mutiny in Monastir, calling for restoration of the constitution. Committee of Union and Progress triumphs. Bulgaria declares independence. Crete unites with Greece.

1908

:

The Young Turks Revolution overthrows Sultan Abdulhamid II. The Second Constitutional Period begins.


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