The Ottoman reform movements led by Sultan Mahmud II and appeared in cultural and social lives of the Empire; had been strongly influenced by the European reforms.

Sultan Abdulmecid appreciated his fathers’ reformist character and as soon as he came to throne he designed a widespread reform movement. He appointed Mustafa Resit Pasha (Ottoman Ambassador in London) as the Minister of International Relations. Mustafa Resit Pasha was very well educated and he was highly aware of the European politics.

Mustafa Resit Pasha represented the Reform Firman in the Gulhane Park, to the representatives of the European countries, to the statesman and to public (08.11.1839). According to the firman;

  •     The Ottoman Government had guaranteed the safety of the lives and the properties of both Muslim and Non-Muslim subjects.

  • The taxes would have been regulated according to the annual incomes.

  • The military services of the Ottoman subjects were re-organised.

  • Executions without a court decision were strictly forbidden.

  • Everybody has gained a right for inheritance.

  • Bribery was forbidden. 

  • Law was regarded as the superior of all powers.

The Reform Firman can be considered as the draft of first Ottoman Constitution. Even the Sultan had accepted a power higher than himself. The minorities were given rights to hinder the European interference in internal issues, but they have found a chance to involve more in the Empire’s domestic administrations.


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